Closed-end fund average returns are based on Morningstar, Inc. unweighted closed-end fund peer group indexes which are un-weighted averages of all of the closed-end funds assigned to the respective categories. The Morningstar All Closed-End Fund Index is an average of all closed-end funds. The Morningstar Fixed Income CEF Index is an average of all closed-end funds categorized by Morningstar as utilizing a fixed income strategy, including intermediate credit. The Morningstar All Equity CEF Index is an average of all closed-end funds categorized by Morningstar as utilizing an equity strategy. The Morningstar All Taxable Fixed Income CEF Index is an average of all closed-end funds categorized by Morningstar as utilizing a taxable fixed income strategy, which excludes municipal bonds. The indexes cannot be invested in directly and do not reflect fees or expenses.
Alpha: A measure of performance on a risk-adjusted basis.
Beta: A measure of the volatility, or systematic risk, of a security or a portfolio in comparison to the market as a whole. The beta of the market is 1.00 by definition.
Business Development Company (BDC): A company that is created to help grow small companies in the initial stages of their development.